Wednesday, 25 April 2018

The Zeebrugge and Ostend Raids: HMS Vindictive

HMS Vindictive was one of four Arrogant-class Protected Cruisers that were built between 1895 and 1900. The other ships in the class were HMS Arrogant, HMS Furious, and HMS Gladiator.

The Arrogant-class protected Cruisers as built.
By the outbreak of the First World War, the design of the Arrogant-class Protected Cruisers was obsolete, and only HMS Vindictive took an active part in the conflict. HMS Gladiator had sunk in 1908 as a result of a collision with the merchant ship SS Saint Paul, whilst HMS Arrogant had become a Submarine Depot Ship in 1911 and HMS Furious had been paid off and hulked in 1912. (She was renamed HMS Forte in 1915 to release the name for the new Light Battlecruiser that was being built.)

The ship's characteristics were:
  • Displacement: 5,750 tons
  • Dimensions:
    • Length: 342' (104.2m)
    • Beam: 57' 6" (17.5m)
    • Draught: 20' (6.1m)
  • Propulsion: 2 x vertical triple-expansion steam engines (10,000shp) using steam generated by 18 Belleville water-tube boilers, driving 2 propellers
  • Speed: 19 knots
  • Complement: 480
  • Armament:
    • When built: 4 × 6-inch (152 mm) QF Guns; 6 × 4.7-inch (120 mm) QF guns; 8 × 12-pounder (3-inch/76mm) QF Guns; 3 × 3-pounder (47mm) QF Guns; 5 x Machine Guns; 3 submerged 18 inch (450mm) Torpedo Tubes
    • By 1914: 10 × 6-inch (152 mm) QF Guns; 8 × 12-pounder (3-inch/76mm) QF Guns; 3 × 3-pounder (47mm) QF Guns; 5 x Machine Guns; 3 submerged 18 inch (450mm) Torpedo Tubes
    • At the time of the Zeebrugge Raid: 1 x 11-inch (280mm) Howitzer; 2 x 7.5-inch (190mm) Howitzers; 2 x 6-inch (152 mm) QF Guns; 16 x 3-inch (76mm) Stokes Mortars; 5 x Pompom Guns; 16 x Lewis Machine Guns; Flamethrowers
  • Armour:
    • Deck: 1.5-inch to 3-inch (38mm to 76mm)
    • Conning tower: 9-inch (229mm)
One of the 7.5-inch Howitzers and several of the 3-inch Stokes Mortars fitted to HMS Vindictive.
HMS Vindictive on her return from Zeebrugge.
The damage done to HMS Vindictive during the raid can be clearly seen in this photograph. The large box-shaped structure to the right of the bridge in this photograph housed one of the large flamethrowers..
After her heroic service during the Zeebrugge Raid, the very badly damaged HMS Vindictive was expended as a blockship during the second raid on Ostend.

Tuesday, 24 April 2018

Nugget 308

The editor of THE NUGGET sent the latest issue to me over the weekend, and I hope to take it to the printer later today. With luck it should be ready for me to collect by the end of the week so that I can post it out over the forthcoming weekend.

IMPORTANT: Please note that this is the eighth and penultimate issue of THE NUGGET to be published for the 2017-2018 subscription year, and that members who have not already re-subscribed can do so by visiting the relevant page on the Wargame Developments website.

Monday, 23 April 2018

Zeebrugge and Ostend Raids: One hundredth anniversary

Today marks the one hundredth anniversary of the raids on Zeebrugge and Ostend. The main purpose of the raids was to block the seaward exits of the canals that linked Bruges to the sea, and to prevent the German submarines and destroyers that were based there from gaining access to the English Channel.

I first became aware of the raid when – as a young child – I saw the model of HMS Vindictive in the Imperial War Museum as she was at the time of the raid. As I grew older I read more and more about the events of 23rd April 1918, and it has become a scenario that I have always wanted to recreate on the tabletop but never quite got around to. More recently my wife discovered that one of her relatives – Able Seaman Sydney G Digby (J36259) – was one of the Royal Navy volunteers who took part in the raid, and who was killed very early on in the action.

The Zeebrugge Raid

The raid on Zeebrugge began with an assault on the mile-long mole. This was intended to disrupt the German defences – particularly the gun batteries on the mole – and was undertaken by a mixed force of Royal Navy personnel and Royal Marines.

The main assault force was carried aboard the heavily modified Arrogant-class cruiser HMS Vindictive. Additional troops were carried aboard the requisitioned Mersey ferries Daffodil and Iris. Two obsolete C-class submarines (C1 and C3) that had been turned into floating bombs by the addition of five tons of explosives in their bows, were tasked with crashing into the viaduct that connected the shore to the mole. Once in place, the explosives were to be detonated after the crews had been evacuated by motor boats.

To help to obscure events from the shoreside defenders and coastal defence batteries, motor launches and coastal torpedo boats were fitted with smokescreen equipment developed by Wing Commander Brock (of the famous family of firework manufacturers) and were supposed to lay a dense smokescreen offshore.

Whilst this diversionary attack was taking place, three old cruisers that had been converted in blockships – HMS Thetis, HMS Intrepid, and HMS Iphigenia – were supposed to sail into the mouth of the Bruges-Zeebrugge canal and then be scuttled so that they blocked it.

Things began to go wrong as soon as the operation began. The wind blew the smokescreen out to sea rather than inland, and the Vindictive came alongside the mole in the wrong place. Many of the assault force were killed before they even made it ashore, and those that did had a very hard fight in their hands trying to beat off the German defenders and to reach and neutralise the mole gun batteries before the blockships arrived.

The three blockships did manage to reach the outer entrance to the canal but sank before they had blocked it completely. One of the submarines – the C3 – did manage to reach the viaduct (the other had not managed to reach Zeebrugge in time due to a broken tow rope) and when its explosive charge went off, it not only destroyed the viaduct but also killed a number of German bicycle troops that were crossing it at the time.

The raid was not a 100% success – the Bruges-based submarines and destroyers were soon able to use the canal again after some dredging work had taken place and the canal entrance had been widened – but it took place at a time when even a reasonably successful aggressive action was welcomed by the British government.

Of the 1,700 men involved in the operation, 227 were killed and 33 wounded. Eight Victoria Crosses were awarded, and the recipients were:
  • Major Edward Bamford DSO (Royal Marine Light Infantry)
  • Lieutenant Commander George Nicholson Bradford (Royal Navy)
  • Commander Alfred Francis Blakeney Carpenter (Royal Navy)
  • Lieutenant Percy Thompson Dean (Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve)
  • Sergeant Norman Augustus Finch (Royal Marine Artillery)
  • Lieutenant Commander Arthur Leyland Harrison (Royal Navy)
  • Ordinary Seaman Albert Edward McKenzie (Royal Navy)
  • Lieutenant Richard Douglas Sandford (Royal Navy)

The Ostend Raids

The attack on Ostend was an altogether smaller affair and involved a much smaller force. Only two blockships were involved – HMS Sirius and HMS Brilliant – and there was no assault by Royal Navy personnel or Royal Marines. There was considerable fire support from four Lord Clive-class and three M15-class monitors and they engaged the German coastal defences.

Just as at Zeebrugge, the smokescreen was blown away from the land by the prevailing wind, and meant that the blockships could not see their target. They tried to navigate by dead reckoning and using a navigation buoy that marked the channel towards the canal. Unfortunately, the buoy had been moved by the local German commander and both ships ended up sinking in the wrong place.

This raid was a total failure, and a second raid was mounted on 10th May in which HMS Vindictive was used as the blockship.

A further three Victoria Crosses were awarded for the second raid. The recipients were:
  • Lieutenant Commander Roland Bourke DSO (Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve)
  • Lieutenant Victor Alexander Charles Crutchley, DSC (Royal Navy)
  • Lieutenant Commander Geoffrey Heneage Drummond (Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve)
This was second raid slightly more successful, but it proved impossible to block the seaward exits of the Bruges-Zeebrugge and Bruges-Ostend canals.

Sunday, 22 April 2018

My American Civil War ironclads are finished

I finished painting my two new model American Civil War ironclads yesterday ... and this is what they look like:

With luck I should be able to see how well they perform in action later this week. I will not be writing a detailed blog entry about any battle I fight as I intend to include it in my forthcoming book about gridded naval wargames, but I will share any interesting photographs that I take.

Saturday, 21 April 2018

Sub-Lieutenant Arthur Walderne St Clair Tisdall VC

Arthur Walderne St Clair Tisdall was born in Bombay (now Mumbai), India, on 21st July, 1890. He was educated at Bedford School and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he got a double first in Classics as well as rowing for his college and being a member of the University OTC (Officer Training Corps).

He joined the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve as an Able Seaman when the First World War broke out, but soon afterwards he was commissioned and became a Sub-Lieutenant. He commanded 13 Platoon, D Company, Anson Battalion, Royal Naval Division during the landings at V Beach, Gallipoli, on 25th April, 1915, and it was during the landings that he rescued numerous wounded men whilst under heavy Turkish machine gun fire. His bravery was noted by many people at the time, but he was killed by a Turkish sniper on 6th May before it was officially recognised.

It was not until Major General Paris (the general commanding the Royal Naval Division) was made aware of Tisdall's actions on 25th April that an investigation was made, as a result of which a recommendation was made that he be awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross. The official citation reads as follows:
'During the landing from the S.S. "River Clyde" at V Beach in the Gallipoli Peninsula on the 25th April 1915, Sub-Lieutenant Tisdall, hearing wounded men on the beach calling for assistance, jumped into the water and pushing a boat in front of him, went to their rescue. He was, however, obliged to obtain help and took with him on two trips Leading Seaman Malia and on other trips Chief Petty Officer Perring and Leading Seaman Curtiss and Parkinson. In all Sub-Lieutenant Tisdall made four or five trips between the ship and the shore, and was thus responsible for rescuing several wounded men under heavy and accurate fire.

Owing to the fact that Sub-Lieutenant Tisdall and the platoon under his orders were on detached service at the time, and that this Officer was killed in action on the 6th May, it has only now been possible to obtain complete information as to the individuals who took part in this gallant act. Of these, Leading Seaman Fred Curtiss has been missing since the 4th June 1915
London Gazette, 31st March 1916

Sub-Lieutenant Arthur Walderne St Clair Tisdall VC has no known grave, and his name is on the Helles Memorial, Gallipoli (Panel 8-15) as well as on the memorial in the churchyard of St George's Church, Deal.

After his death The Naval and Military Press published a book of verses, letter, and remembrances about him.

It is worth noting that two of the men who helped Tisdall on 25th April (Chief Petty Officer (later Sub-Lieutenant) William Perring and Leading Seaman James Parkinson) were awarded the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (CGM) for their actions on the day.

Friday, 20 April 2018

I have been to ... Deal, Kent

When Sue and I realised that yesterday was going to be the hottest since last August, we decided to go to the seaside. (The temperature reached 27°C and turned out to be the warmest April day since 1949!) We chose to go to Deal on the Channel coast of Kent, a place where bat we last visited in 2015.

The journey took just over ninety minutes, and we were able to find a place in the main car park in the centre of the town. From there we walked towards the northern end of the High Street.

On our way back along the High Street we stopped off at St George's Church.

Just inside the gates into the churchyard was a memorial ...

... to Sub-Lieutenant Arthur Walderne St Clair Tisdall VC, ...

... his brother, Lieutenant John Theodore St Clair Tisdall, ...

... and the men of Deal who died during the First World War.

We continued our walk along the High Street, visiting a number of shops along the way.

We then turned towards the seafront ...

... and walked northwards past the pier.

By the time we reached the Royal Hotel – a hotel and restaurant that dominates the seafront and which was frequented by Admiral Nelson and Emma Hamilton – we were both feeling thirsty and hungry.

We decided to eat in the restaurant facing the sea, ...

...and whilst Sue ate fish and chips, I chose locally-sourced ham, eggs, and chips.

After eating lunch, Sue and I had a short walk along the seafront ...

... before we returned to the High Street to buy some jewellery we had looked at earlier. We then made our way back to the car park, and drove home, having had a very enjoyable day out.

Whilst we were in Deal, Sue and I discovered that in 2014 the DAILY TELEGRAPH had named Deal's High Street to be the best in England.

Wednesday, 18 April 2018

American Civil War model warship plans

I have spent quite some time today turning the hand-drawn pencil drawings I made as I constructed my two American Civil War ironclads into proper drawings that other people may be able to follow.

The results are as follows:

Plans for the Casemate Ironclad.
Plans for the Monitor.
They will be used in my forthcoming book about gridded naval wargames as part of a 'How to construct simple American Civil War model ironclads' appendix.

Tuesday, 17 April 2018

A quiet Monday finishing some models

After all the excitement of visiting SALUTE and then writing my photo-report, I managed to spend part of yesterday quietly sitting in my toy/wargames room finishing two models ships that will be featured in my forthcoming book about gridded naval wargames.

I needed a couple of American Civil War ironclads, and so I built a Casemate Ironclad ...

... and a Monitor.

I intend to include an appendix in the book that explains how I built these two models, but the techniques I used are similar to those I have used before.

Before I can use the models, they will need to be given a couple of coats of PVA glue to seal the wood they are made from, after which I will paint them ... probably in contrasting shades of dark grey. Once that is done, battle can commence!

Sunday, 15 April 2018

Salute 2018: A selective photo-report

Rather than try to cover everything in this photo-report, I decided to try to give people who were unable to visit ExCel yesterday a flavour of what the show was like and the wargames that I thought were interesting.

Getting there

I am very lucky in that I live near the top of Shooters Hill in south east London. In fact, I can actually see ExCel from the driveway of my house, and getting there by public transport is relatively quick and easy. A short 'bus ride took me to Woolwich Arsenal Station, where I could catch one of the regular Docklands Light Railway (DLR) trains to Canning Town, where I could change onto the line that goes to Customs House, the nearest DLR station to Excel. Yesterday the whole journey door-to-door took just under an hour.

Getting in

I walked along the concourse from the station towards ...

... the entrance into ExCel.

Once inside I walked past the numerous exhibition halls and fast-food outlets until I reached N9, the entrance to SALUTE.

I showed my ticket at the door, and then joined the queue to get in.

At 10.00am the waiting crowd was allowed into ...

... the exhibition hall.

The games that I thought were particularly interesting

Battles for Lake Tanganyika (Peterborough Wargames Society)
This was three wargames on one table. In the first a British force was raiding a German outpost ...

... whilst in the second the two British motor gunboats Mimi and Toutou were trying to sink or capture the German gunboat Kingane.

The third game saw the African Queen trying to negotiate her way along the Ulanga River in order to reach the open lake so that she could sink the German gunboat K├Ânigin Luise.

The Biscotti War (League of Gentlemen Anti-Alchemists)

Twisting the Dragon's Tail (Maidstone Wargames Society)
The first of the two wargames about the Zeebrugge Raid.

Ipsus - A Macedonian game of thrones (Newbury & Reading Wargames Society)

Battle of Kawanakajima 1561 (Loughton Strike Force)

Sink the Hornet (Warlord Games)

Battle of the Bulge (Warlord Games)

Operation Taifun - The Battle for Leros 1943 (A Few Brits and the Hobby)

The Battle of Tewksbury 1471 (Oxford Wargames Society)

Battle of Freeman's Farm (Essex Warriors)

1918 Zero Hour - The Big Push (Scarab Pals)

Blood & Bridges (Berks and Bucks Occasionals)

The Fight at Altenhof (Continental Wars Society)

In God's Name (South London Warlords)

Battle of Soggy Bottom 1643 (Simon Miller & Friends)

War in America - AWI (Bill Gaskin & Friends)

Battle of Aspern-Essling 1809 (The Old Guard)

The Zeebrugge Raid 1918 (The Naval Wagames Society)
The second wargame about the Zeebrugge Raid covered the entire operation, and used some detailed models of the ships and the harbour.

Seagull Day: The First Battle of Britain 1938 (Gentlemens Wargames Parlour)

Glory! From the Halls of Montezuma (Ian Smith & Friends)

Baggenstaket 1719 (Dalauppror)

1914 (Great Escape Games)

Mortem & Glorium (Ancient and Modern/Donnington Miniatures)

Invasion of Copenhagen (Chelmsford Bunker)

Mission Command (Abbey Wood Irregulars/SSG Wargames)

Battle of Paraitacene (Society of Ancients)
Professor Phil Sabin and the other stalwarts of the SOA staged yet another of their large demonstration games.

Battle of Varna 1444 (Wyvern Wargames Club)

Other displays that I thought were particularly interesting

Andy Callan and Peter Dennis's Paper Soldiers
I've know Andy Callan since 1980, and have met Peter Dennis before. I wanted to see what their paper soldiers looked like in the flesh ... and mighty impressed I was!

The First World War tank

Since yesterday I have discovered that this 'replica' (it isn't full size but look impressive nonetheless) is made of wood and is capable of powered movement.